eenth century, the lute's rival, the guitar, which was simpler in construction and less cumbersome to hold
and to play, finally won the battle for popular favor.
Other instruments which developed from the 'oud are the mandolin, the mandora, panadurina, theorbo,chitarrone and mandolino.
 
   
 
     
  ed its original name and shape until the fifteenth century. In Europe, it was the psaliery, in Russia, gus Ii, in the Ukraine, bandura. The Latin name was canon, the Italian, canone, the German, kanon, the Scandinavian, kanala, and the French, micanon.

As early as the twelfth century, a new Islamic instrument, very similar to the qanoon,was introduced to Europe through Byzantium. The santur, as it originated, or the ducimer, as it was named by medieval Europe, is struck rather than plucked. In Greece it was known as the santuri and in Rumania and Hungary it evolved as cemba/om.
The rabab, or "rabe morisco"-one of the contributory ancestors of the violin-also spread from Spain to Europe under the name rebec. It is a violin-like instrument except that it is played vertically, mostly by street musicians.
The last Arab instrument to be adapted by the western world is the tambourine. A percussion instrument used to provide rhythm, the tambourine is made of wood and parchment with pairs of small brass cymbals attached around its circular frame. It is held up by its frame with the thumb of the left hand on one side and the rest of the fingers extended on the other side of the skin. Its effect can still be felt today in many parts of Europe, especially in Spain.

 
   
 
     
       
     
   
     
  The golden age of the mandolin was in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries when works for it were written by Vivaldi, Handel, Mozart and Beethoven. Another instrument developed by the Islamic world and passed on to Europe is the tanbour or the buzuk. This instrument has a small pear-shaped body and long gut-fretted neck. Its shape required the player to have a far greater dexterity than was required for performing the 'oud. In Italy, it was transformed to the calascione and is still used in most of the Balkan countries as a folk instrument. In Yugoslavia, it became tanburitza, in Greece, the buzuki, and in Russia, the domras.
The qanoon, zither, was first developed in the Arab world during the tenth century. It is a flat trapezoidal wooden box, with twenty-four strings in triple, fastened at its rectangular side on one end and to pegs on the oblique side on the other. Small levels lying below each course of strings are manipulated by the player to make slight changes in pitch. The strings are plucked with two horn plectra, one on each index finger. The qanoon is believed to have been invented by al-Farabi, the Muslim mathematician, physicist and musician. From Spain it was introduced to Europe. It retain-
 
   
   
     
       
     
   
                          
   

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